ETFE透明膜材

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ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”

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ETFE透明膜,ETFE气枕,透光“软玻璃”?

本文来源:迈丘设计;ID:metrostudio

ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”640.jpg

有一种建筑新材料

跟传统材料相比

轻盈而柔韧,透光且环保

在设计师手下呈现出令人流连忘返的梦幻美景

今天,就带您一起了解这种现代的ETFE材料

ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”640 (1).jpg

01.

ETFE透明膜材料总述

以前建筑界在很大程度上仍将塑料聚合物视为劣质的建筑材料,认为其不适用于大规模建筑应用。但是随着技术创新推动材料能力的发展,塑料聚合物越来越受到设计师的青睐,并在应用上大放异彩。这些材料中使用最广泛的一种是称为ETFE(乙烯四氟乙烯)的氟基塑料。

ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”640 (2).jpg

ETFE(Ethylene Tetm nuoro Ethylene)最初是由杜邦公司(DuPont)于1970年代开发的,中文名为乙烯一四氟乙烯共聚物,俗称“软玻璃”,是一种轻质、耐热的薄膜。ETFE膜具有很多其他材料无法比拟的性能。

ETFE透明膜的优势 

质轻、韧性好、抗拉强度高、延展性

耐候性和耐化学腐蚀性强

防火安全性好,不会自燃

可见光透过率高

优异的自清洁功能,灰尘不易吸附在其表面

适应性好,几乎可以加工成任何尺寸和形状

ETFE薄膜可预制成薄膜气囊气枕,现场组装、充气、施工,维修方便

ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”640.gif

由于ETFE膜的透光性特别好,号称“透明软玻璃”,用于建筑上的ETFE气枕膜结构,可100%回收再利用,低碳节能、绿色环保,ETFE膜建筑外围护结构将是新时代绿色建筑的载体。

02.

ETFE膜的结构分类  

根据膜结构的成形方式和受力特点

一般可以分为

骨架式ETFE透明膜、张拉式透明膜和充气式ETFE透明膜

骨架ETFE膜结构

骨架ETFE膜结构是膜材依靠具有稳定性、完整性的钢或其他材料构成的刚性骨架,经张拉而构成的骨架式膜结构。形态有平面形、单曲面形和以鞍形为代表的双曲面形。

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▲Kehl-Sundheim车棚

骨架ETFE透明膜结构的显著特点在于:膜不是维持结构体系存在的必要结构单元,但膜又不仅仅是单纯地用来覆盖屋面体系,而是充分发挥了其建筑采光功能、高强度受力特性。因屋顶造型比较单纯,开口部不易受限制,且经济效益高等特点,广泛适用于任何大,小规模的空间。

张拉式ETFE透明膜结构

张拉式ETFE膜结构以膜材、钢索及支柱构成,利用钢索与支柱在膜材中导入张力以达安定的形式。除了可实践具创意,创新且美观的造型外,也是最能展现膜结构精神的构造形式。大型跨距空间也多采用以钢索与压缩材构成钢索网来支撑上部膜材的形式。

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▲美国驻伦敦大使馆

张拉式ETFE膜结构可以根据需要制成任意复杂曲面形状,体现自然流畅之美;并有多种颜色的膜材可选,以适应周边的环境、满足建筑效果要求;而且膜结构质量轻,一般不需要太庞大的支撑结构,这是其他建筑材料无法比拟的优势所在。

ETFE气枕,充气ETFE膜结构

充气式ETFE膜结构是指在以高分子材料制成的薄膜制品中充入空气后形成的结构。我们常说的的充气式ETFE膜结构一般指气承式膜结构(Air-supportedMembrane Structure),即是通过送风向建筑物内充气(常为室外气压的1.001~1.003倍),使室内外保持一定的压力差从而支撑覆盖膜体并保持其稳定的形状。

ETFE透明膜 ETFE气枕 透光“软玻璃”640 (5).jpg

▲新韩国花园

另一种充气膜结构根据其外观形式也称为气肋式、气囊式膜结构,即向单个膜构件内充气(常为室外气压的2~7倍),使其保持足够的内外压差。构件单个或组合在一起作为类似于梁、拱、平板等受力结构构件。这种结构对膜材自身的气密性要求很高,需不断地向膜构件内充气以保持必要的内压。

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▲新韩国花园

03.


ETFE膜结构案例欣赏

01.哈德逊艺术中心

在哈德逊码头上,全新的跨界“棚屋”艺术中心(The Shed)于2019年4月5日对外开放。艺术中心由著名建筑公司 Diller Scofidio+Renfro 和 Rockwell 集团合作设计,打造了覆盖着ETFE气枕膜材料的120英尺的伸缩式外壳,能够通过滚轮将建筑延伸至“棚屋”的户外广场,营造更开阔的半户外空间,旨在创建世界上最具灵活性的文化机构。

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地点:美国纽约

设计:Diller Scofidio + Renfro

面积:17000平方英尺

年份:2019



02.英国“伊甸园”

“伊甸园”项目位于英国的康沃尔郡,是在废弃的矿山上建的全球最大的生态温室。主要由8个充满未来主义色彩的巨大蜂巢式穹顶建筑构成,其中每4座穹顶状建筑连成一组。“伊甸园”的穹顶穹顶架由钢管构成,拼成尺寸9米大小的六角形天窗,天窗中间铺设半透明的ETFE薄膜材料。在形态上像放大了无数倍的“大水泡”。"大水泡"里培育着原产于非洲、亚洲、欧洲、大洋洲和美洲的热带植物。

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地点:英国康沃尔郡

设计:Grimshaw

面积:15公顷

年份:2015



03.普拉森西亚礼堂和会议中心

这座会议中心位于普拉森西亚的郊区地带,设计团队期望最大程度地尊重土地,将被占用的土地面积尽可能地缩小,同时为未来可能的扩展区域保留出一座自然的小岛。会议中心外皮使用了ETFE薄膜,半透明和透明之间形成了一系列视觉过渡,阳光和灯光穿过半透的膜片使建筑体外观更加耀眼,进入其中仿佛置身于梦幻的海洋之中。

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地点:西班牙 卡塔赫纳

设计:Selgascano

面积:80729.33平方英尺

年份:2017



04.新韩国花园

新韩国花园采用ETFE材料制成,充满空气和轻盈的质感,也传达了「放松场域」的基本精神。花园中所有元素都将覆盖一层夜光漆,晚上花园将通过光线和装置产生变化。这是莫斯科设计团队SKNYPL在韩国政府推行的New Korean Garden竞图活动中,构想建造的一个充气装置艺术飘浮花园。构成整个新韩式花园故事的ETFE材料方便可回收,它是首尔历史上的一颗璀璨火花,来得快去得也快,也能轻易地脱离了城市生活。

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地点:韩国首尔

设计:SKNYPL

面积:700平方米

年份:2019



05.德国慕尼黑安联体育场

德国慕尼黑安联体育场以它精巧的结构壮丽的外观,成为慕尼黑以至于德国的荣耀。安联体育场是欧洲最现代化的球场。由雅克·赫尔佐格和皮埃尔·缪隆设计。外墙体由2874个ETFE气垫膜构成,其中1056个在比赛中可以发光。当体育场中比赛的球队发生变化时,墙的颜色就可以随之改变,其奇妙之处将远超想象。慕尼黑人非常喜欢这个体育场,并亲切地将其称为“安全带”或“橡皮艇”。

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06.亚马逊总部办公楼 Amazon Spheres

Amazon Spheres是项目最核心的“热带雨林"部分,由3个大的球状体组成,其中最大的球状体直径39米,高27米,共四层。据说,整个建筑使用了2,643片透明玻璃和620吨钢。并且在玻璃下方有一层ETFE薄膜,可以过滤红外线,保持室内温度。而它最大的特点是,里面种了4万多种植物,并且都是非常珍惜的物种,分别从50多个国家采集而来,行走其间犹如漫步林中,可谓一个“室内热带雨林”。

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地点:美国西雅图

设计:NBBJ

面积:30万平方米

年份:2018



7.美国驻伦敦大使馆

这座立方体形式的建筑高65米,共12层,表面为夹层玻璃,在两侧的立面笼罩着透明的ETFE薄膜,该建筑特殊的立面形式是为了减少太阳光直射的同时,仍能满足室内采光。建筑的立面材料可以反光,其颜色根据天气和太阳照射的位置而变化。除了定向材料的使用,以及独特立面的设置,建筑师还运用了多种可持续策略,其中包括地源热泵,建筑师声称,该建筑满足LEED白金级别标准,同时也满足BREEAM可持续性等级,这正是他们的目标。

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地点:英国伦敦

设计:Kieran Timberlake

面积:48128平方米

年份:2018


08.Schwabinger Tor车站

Schwabinger Tor是慕尼黑市新建的城区,由Felix Fischer Architekten设计的带有弯曲檐篷的电车站成为该地区的标志性建筑,为城市的广场空间赋予了独特景观。每个顶篷的表面积均为双曲线抛物面,从而产生了一种低成本的高效静态形式。两个顶棚均由焊接的钢梁制成,被单层平滑的 ETFE薄膜覆盖。作为双曲线形式的特殊功能,降落的雨水将自然流向地基,起到安全收集和排放的作用。

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地点:德国慕尼黑

设计:Felix Fischer Architekten

面积:2500平方米

年份:2018



09.Kehl-Sundheim车棚

Seele建筑工作室为Kehl-Sundheim的新洗车场实现了吸水区非凡的膜式车顶建设。屋顶结构的几何形状由蜂窝状钢结构组成,网格结构搁置在支座上。710平方米的双层ETFE薄膜可提供天气防护。借助集成照明,屋顶提供了引人注目的效果。在夏季,ETFE薄膜的抗紫外线性能可在最大日光下提供必要的防晒效果;在冬季,由于封闭的空气量,该薄膜可平衡风和雪负荷。

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设计:Seele

面积:710平方米 

年份:2017

10.蛇形画廊展馆

该设计由包裹在彩色ETFE薄板和最小钢架组成,围绕着“秘密走廊”,其灵感来自伦敦地下的多层且有时是混乱的线路网络。SelgasCano使用彩色ETFE材料使结构具有“运动性和轻便性”,塑料能够在刚性钢制框架中轻松变形,呈现出动态观感。SelgasCano与工程师Aecom & David Glover合作,使用的ETFE塑材被印刷上了19种颜色,达到了万花筒般的效果。

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地点:英国伦敦

设计:SelgasCano

年份:2015






What is translucent "soft glass"?

Source of this article: Maiqiu Design; ID: metrostudio


There is a new building material

Compared with traditional materials

Light and flexible, transparent and environmentally friendly

Under the designer's hands, present a dreamy beauty

Today, the editor will take you to understand this modern ETFE material

01.

ETFE material overview

In the past, the construction industry still regarded plastic polymers as inferior building materials to a large extent, which was not suitable for large-scale construction applications. However, as technological innovation promotes the development of material capabilities, plastic polymers are increasingly favored by designers and shine in applications. The most widely used of these materials is a fluorine-based plastic called ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene).

ETFE (Ethylene Tetm nuoro Ethylene) was originally developed by DuPont in the 1970s. The Chinese name is ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, commonly known as "soft glass". It is a lightweight, heat-resistant film. ETFE film has many properties unmatched by other materials.

Advantages of ETFE membrane

Light weight, good toughness, high tensile strength, ductility

Strong weather resistance and chemical resistance

Good fire safety, no spontaneous combustion

High visible light transmittance

Excellent self-cleaning function, dust is not easy to adsorb on its surface

Good adaptability, can be processed into almost any size and shape

ETFE film can be prefabricated as a film airbag, which can be assembled, inflated and constructed on site, with convenient maintenance

Due to the particularly good light transmittance of the ETFE film, known as "soft glass", the ETFE air pillow membrane structure used in buildings can be 100% recycled and reused. It is low-carbon, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly. The carrier of green architecture in the new era.

02.

ETFE membrane structure classification

According to the forming method and stress characteristics of the membrane structure

Generally can be divided into

Skeleton membrane, tensile membrane and inflatable membrane

Skeleton membrane structure

The skeleton membrane structure is a skeleton membrane structure which is formed by stretching a rigid skeleton composed of steel or other materials with stability and integrity. The shape includes a plane shape, a single curved surface shape and a hyperboloid shape represented by a saddle shape.

▲ Kehl-Sundheim carport

The remarkable feature of the skeleton membrane structure is that the membrane is not a necessary structural unit to maintain the existence of the structural system, but the membrane is not only used to cover the roof system, but also fully exerts its architectural lighting function and high-strength stress characteristics. Because the roof is relatively simple in shape, the opening is not easy to be restricted, and has high economic benefits, it is widely used in any large and small space.

Tensile membrane structure

The tensile membrane structure is composed of a membrane material, a steel cable and a pillar, and the steel cable and the pillar are used to introduce tension into the membrane material to achieve a stable form. In addition to being able to practice creative, innovative and beautiful shapes, it is also the construction form that can best demonstrate the spirit of the membrane structure. Large-span spaces also mostly use steel cables and compressed materials to form a steel cable network to support the upper membrane.

▲ U.S. Embassy in London

The tensile membrane structure can be made into any complex curved surface shape according to the needs, reflecting the natural and smooth beauty; and a variety of membrane materials can be selected to adapt to the surrounding environment and meet the requirements of architectural effects; and the membrane structure is light and generally does not need Too large a supporting structure is an advantage that other building materials cannot match.

Inflatable membrane structure

The inflatable membrane structure refers to a structure formed by filling air into a film product made of a polymer material. The inflatable membrane structure we often say generally refers to the air-supported membrane structure (Air-supported Membrane Structure), which is to inflate the building through the air supply (usually 1.001 to 1.003 times the outdoor air pressure) to maintain a certain pressure indoor and outdoor Poor to support the cover film body and maintain its stable shape.

▲ New Korean Garden

Another type of inflatable membrane structure is also called air ribbed or airbag membrane structure according to its appearance, that is, to inflate a single membrane member (usually 2 to 7 times the outdoor air pressure) to maintain sufficient internal and external pressure difference. The components are used individually or combined together as structural members similar to beams, arches, slabs, etc. This structure has high requirements on the airtightness of the membrane material itself, and it is necessary to continuously inflate the membrane member to maintain the necessary internal pressure.

▲ New Korean Garden

03.

ETFE membrane structure case appreciation

01. Hudson Art Center

On Hudson Wharf, the new cross-border "shed" art center (The Shed) opened to the public on April 5, 2019. The art center was designed by the famous construction company Diller Scofidio + Renfro and Rockwell Group to create a 120-foot retractable shell covered with ETFE air pillow membrane material, which can extend the building to the outdoor square of the "shack" through the rollers. The open semi-outdoor space aims to create the most flexible cultural institution in the world.

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Location: New York, USA

Design: Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Area: 17,000 square feet

Year: 2019

02. British "Eden"

The "Eden" project is located in Cornwall, England, and is the world's largest ecological greenhouse built on an abandoned mine. It is mainly composed of 8 huge honeycomb dome buildings full of futurism, in which every 4 dome-shaped buildings are connected in a group. The dome of the "Eden" dome is made of steel tubes and is assembled into a hexagonal skylight with a size of 9 meters. The translucent ETFE film material is placed in the middle of the skylight. It looks like a "big blister" magnified in countless times. Tropical plants native to Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania and America are cultivated in the "Big Bubble".

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Location: Cornwall, United Kingdom

Design: Grimshaw

Area: 15 hectares

Year: 2015

03. Plasencia Auditorium and Conference Center

The conference center is located on the outskirts of Plasencia. The design team hopes to respect the land to the greatest extent possible, reduce the occupied land area as much as possible, and at the same time reserve a natural island for possible future expansion. The conference center skin uses ETFE film. A series of visual transitions are formed between translucency and transparency. Sunlight and light pass through the translucent membrane to make the building look more dazzling and enter the dreamy ocean.

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Location: Cartagena, Spain

Design: Selgascano

Area: 80729.33 square feet

Year: 2017

04. New Korean Garden

The new Korean garden is made of ETFE material, which is full of air and light texture, and also conveys the basic spirit of "relaxing field". All elements in the garden will be covered with a layer of luminous paint, and the garden will be transformed by light and installation at night. This is an inflatable floating art garden conceived by the Moscow design team SKNYPL in the New Korean Garden competition launched by the Korean government. The ETFE material that makes up the whole story of the new Korean garden is convenient and recyclable. It is a bright spark in the history of Seoul.

Location: Seoul, South Korea

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Design: SKNYPL

Area: 700 square meters

Year: 2019

05. Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany

Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany, with its exquisite structure and magnificent appearance, has become the glory of Munich and even Germany. Allianz Arena is the most modern stadium in Europe. Designed by Jacques Herzog and Pierre Muron. The outer wall is composed of 2874 ETFE air cushion membranes, 1056 of which can shine during the competition. When the team that plays in the stadium changes, the color of the wall can change accordingly, and its wonders will be far beyond imagination. The people of Munich like this stadium very much and affectionately call it a "safety belt" or "rubber boat".

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06. Amazon Headquarters Office Building Amazon Spheres

Amazon Spheres is the core "tropical rainforest" part of the project. It consists of 3 large spheroids, the largest of which has a diameter of 39 meters and a height of 27 meters. It is said that 2,643 pieces of clear glass and 620 tons of steel were used throughout the building. And there is a layer of ETFE film under the glass, which can filter infrared rays and maintain the indoor temperature. And its biggest feature is that it has more than 40,000 kinds of plants planted therein, and they are all very cherished species. They were collected from more than 50 countries and walked like a walk in the forest.

Location: Seattle, USA

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Design: NBBJ

Area: 300,000 square meters

Year: 2018

7. U.S. Embassy in London

This cube-shaped building is 65 meters high and has 12 floors. The surface is laminated glass. The facades on both sides are covered with transparent ETFE film. The special facade form of the building is to reduce direct sunlight while still being able Meet indoor lighting. The facade material of the building can reflect light, and its color changes according to the weather and the location of the sun. In addition to the use of oriented materials and the setting of unique façades, the architect also used a variety of sustainable strategies, including ground source heat pumps. The architect claimed that the building met the LEED platinum level standard and the BREEAM sustainability level , This is exactly their goal.

Location: London, United Kingdom

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Design: Kieran Timberlake

Area: 48128 square meters

Year: 2018

08. Schwabinger Tor Station

Schwabinger Tor is a newly built urban area in Munich. The tram stop with curved canopy designed by Felix Fischer Architekten has become a landmark in the area, giving the city's square space a unique landscape. The surface area of each canopy is a hyperbolic paraboloid, resulting in a low-cost, efficient static form. Both ceilings are made of welded steel beams and are covered with a single layer of smooth ETFE film. As a special function in the form of a hyperbola, the falling rainwater will naturally flow to the foundation, which plays a role in the safe collection and discharge.

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Location: Munich, Germany

Design: Felix Fischer Architekten

Area: 2500 square meters

Year: 2018


09. Kehl-Sundheim carport

Seele Architectural Studio achieved an extraordinary membrane roof construction in the water absorption area for the new car wash in Kehl-Sundheim. The geometry of the roof structure consists of a honeycomb steel structure, and the grid structure rests on the support. 710 square meters of double-layer ETFE film can provide weather protection. With integrated lighting, the roof provides a compelling effect. In summer, the anti-ultraviolet properties of the ETFE film can provide the necessary sun protection under maximum sunlight; in winter, due to the enclosed air volume, the film can balance wind and snow loads.

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Design: Seele

Area: 710 square meters

Year: 2017

10. Serpentine Gallery Pavilion

The design consists of colored ETFE sheets and minimal steel frames, surrounding the "secret corridor", which is inspired by the multi-layered and sometimes chaotic network of lines underground in London. SelgasCano uses colored ETFE materials to make the structure "sporty and lightweight", and the plastic can be easily deformed in a rigid steel frame, showing a dynamic look and feel. SelgasCano collaborated with engineers Aecom & David Glover. The ETFE plastic material used was printed in 19 colors, achieving a kaleidoscope effect.

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Location: London, United Kingdom

Design: SelgasCano

Year: 2015



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