ETFE（Ethylene Tetm nuoro Ethylene）最初是由杜邦公司（DuPont）于1970年代开发的，中文名为乙烯一四氟乙烯共聚物，俗称“软玻璃”，是一种轻质、耐热的薄膜。ETFE膜具有很多其他材料无法比拟的性能。
在哈德逊码头上，全新的跨界“棚屋”艺术中心（The Shed）于2019年4月5日对外开放。艺术中心由著名建筑公司 Diller Scofidio+Renfro 和 Rockwell 集团合作设计，打造了覆盖着ETFE气枕膜材料的120英尺的伸缩式外壳，能够通过滚轮将建筑延伸至“棚屋”的户外广场，营造更开阔的半户外空间，旨在创建世界上最具灵活性的文化机构。
设计：Diller Scofidio + Renfro
新韩国花园采用ETFE材料制成，充满空气和轻盈的质感，也传达了「放松场域」的基本精神。花园中所有元素都将覆盖一层夜光漆，晚上花园将通过光线和装置产生变化。这是莫斯科设计团队SKNYPL在韩国政府推行的New Korean Garden竞图活动中，构想建造的一个充气装置艺术飘浮花园。构成整个新韩式花园故事的ETFE材料方便可回收，它是首尔历史上的一颗璀璨火花，来得快去得也快，也能轻易地脱离了城市生活。
06.亚马逊总部办公楼 Amazon Spheres
Schwabinger Tor是慕尼黑市新建的城区，由Felix Fischer Architekten设计的带有弯曲檐篷的电车站成为该地区的标志性建筑，为城市的广场空间赋予了独特景观。每个顶篷的表面积均为双曲线抛物面，从而产生了一种低成本的高效静态形式。两个顶棚均由焊接的钢梁制成，被单层平滑的 ETFE薄膜覆盖。作为双曲线形式的特殊功能，降落的雨水将自然流向地基，起到安全收集和排放的作用。
设计：Felix Fischer Architekten
该设计由包裹在彩色ETFE薄板和最小钢架组成，围绕着“秘密走廊”，其灵感来自伦敦地下的多层且有时是混乱的线路网络。SelgasCano使用彩色ETFE材料使结构具有“运动性和轻便性”，塑料能够在刚性钢制框架中轻松变形，呈现出动态观感。SelgasCano与工程师Aecom & David Glover合作，使用的ETFE塑材被印刷上了19种颜色，达到了万花筒般的效果。
What is translucent "soft glass"?
Source of this article: Maiqiu Design; ID: metrostudio
There is a new building material
Compared with traditional materials
Light and flexible, transparent and environmentally friendly
Under the designer's hands, present a dreamy beauty
Today, the editor will take you to understand this modern ETFE material
ETFE material overview
In the past, the construction industry still regarded plastic polymers as inferior building materials to a large extent, which was not suitable for large-scale construction applications. However, as technological innovation promotes the development of material capabilities, plastic polymers are increasingly favored by designers and shine in applications. The most widely used of these materials is a fluorine-based plastic called ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene).
ETFE (Ethylene Tetm nuoro Ethylene) was originally developed by DuPont in the 1970s. The Chinese name is ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, commonly known as "soft glass". It is a lightweight, heat-resistant film. ETFE film has many properties unmatched by other materials.
Advantages of ETFE membrane
Light weight, good toughness, high tensile strength, ductility
Strong weather resistance and chemical resistance
Good fire safety, no spontaneous combustion
High visible light transmittance
Excellent self-cleaning function, dust is not easy to adsorb on its surface
Good adaptability, can be processed into almost any size and shape
ETFE film can be prefabricated as a film airbag, which can be assembled, inflated and constructed on site, with convenient maintenance
Due to the particularly good light transmittance of the ETFE film, known as "soft glass", the ETFE air pillow membrane structure used in buildings can be 100% recycled and reused. It is low-carbon, energy-saving, and environmentally friendly. The carrier of green architecture in the new era.
ETFE membrane structure classification
According to the forming method and stress characteristics of the membrane structure
Generally can be divided into
Skeleton membrane, tensile membrane and inflatable membrane
Skeleton membrane structure
The skeleton membrane structure is a skeleton membrane structure which is formed by stretching a rigid skeleton composed of steel or other materials with stability and integrity. The shape includes a plane shape, a single curved surface shape and a hyperboloid shape represented by a saddle shape.
▲ Kehl-Sundheim carport
The remarkable feature of the skeleton membrane structure is that the membrane is not a necessary structural unit to maintain the existence of the structural system, but the membrane is not only used to cover the roof system, but also fully exerts its architectural lighting function and high-strength stress characteristics. Because the roof is relatively simple in shape, the opening is not easy to be restricted, and has high economic benefits, it is widely used in any large and small space.
Tensile membrane structure
The tensile membrane structure is composed of a membrane material, a steel cable and a pillar, and the steel cable and the pillar are used to introduce tension into the membrane material to achieve a stable form. In addition to being able to practice creative, innovative and beautiful shapes, it is also the construction form that can best demonstrate the spirit of the membrane structure. Large-span spaces also mostly use steel cables and compressed materials to form a steel cable network to support the upper membrane.
▲ U.S. Embassy in London
The tensile membrane structure can be made into any complex curved surface shape according to the needs, reflecting the natural and smooth beauty; and a variety of membrane materials can be selected to adapt to the surrounding environment and meet the requirements of architectural effects; and the membrane structure is light and generally does not need Too large a supporting structure is an advantage that other building materials cannot match.
Inflatable membrane structure
The inflatable membrane structure refers to a structure formed by filling air into a film product made of a polymer material. The inflatable membrane structure we often say generally refers to the air-supported membrane structure (Air-supported Membrane Structure), which is to inflate the building through the air supply (usually 1.001 to 1.003 times the outdoor air pressure) to maintain a certain pressure indoor and outdoor Poor to support the cover film body and maintain its stable shape.
▲ New Korean Garden
Another type of inflatable membrane structure is also called air ribbed or airbag membrane structure according to its appearance, that is, to inflate a single membrane member (usually 2 to 7 times the outdoor air pressure) to maintain sufficient internal and external pressure difference. The components are used individually or combined together as structural members similar to beams, arches, slabs, etc. This structure has high requirements on the airtightness of the membrane material itself, and it is necessary to continuously inflate the membrane member to maintain the necessary internal pressure.
▲ New Korean Garden
ETFE membrane structure case appreciation
01. Hudson Art Center
On Hudson Wharf, the new cross-border "shed" art center (The Shed) opened to the public on April 5, 2019. The art center was designed by the famous construction company Diller Scofidio + Renfro and Rockwell Group to create a 120-foot retractable shell covered with ETFE air pillow membrane material, which can extend the building to the outdoor square of the "shack" through the rollers. The open semi-outdoor space aims to create the most flexible cultural institution in the world.
Location: New York, USA
Design: Diller Scofidio + Renfro
Area: 17,000 square feet
02. British "Eden"
The "Eden" project is located in Cornwall, England, and is the world's largest ecological greenhouse built on an abandoned mine. It is mainly composed of 8 huge honeycomb dome buildings full of futurism, in which every 4 dome-shaped buildings are connected in a group. The dome of the "Eden" dome is made of steel tubes and is assembled into a hexagonal skylight with a size of 9 meters. The translucent ETFE film material is placed in the middle of the skylight. It looks like a "big blister" magnified in countless times. Tropical plants native to Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania and America are cultivated in the "Big Bubble".
Location: Cornwall, United Kingdom
Area: 15 hectares
03. Plasencia Auditorium and Conference Center
The conference center is located on the outskirts of Plasencia. The design team hopes to respect the land to the greatest extent possible, reduce the occupied land area as much as possible, and at the same time reserve a natural island for possible future expansion. The conference center skin uses ETFE film. A series of visual transitions are formed between translucency and transparency. Sunlight and light pass through the translucent membrane to make the building look more dazzling and enter the dreamy ocean.
Location: Cartagena, Spain
Area: 80729.33 square feet
04. New Korean Garden
The new Korean garden is made of ETFE material, which is full of air and light texture, and also conveys the basic spirit of "relaxing field". All elements in the garden will be covered with a layer of luminous paint, and the garden will be transformed by light and installation at night. This is an inflatable floating art garden conceived by the Moscow design team SKNYPL in the New Korean Garden competition launched by the Korean government. The ETFE material that makes up the whole story of the new Korean garden is convenient and recyclable. It is a bright spark in the history of Seoul.
Location: Seoul, South Korea
Area: 700 square meters
05. Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany
Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany, with its exquisite structure and magnificent appearance, has become the glory of Munich and even Germany. Allianz Arena is the most modern stadium in Europe. Designed by Jacques Herzog and Pierre Muron. The outer wall is composed of 2874 ETFE air cushion membranes, 1056 of which can shine during the competition. When the team that plays in the stadium changes, the color of the wall can change accordingly, and its wonders will be far beyond imagination. The people of Munich like this stadium very much and affectionately call it a "safety belt" or "rubber boat".
06. Amazon Headquarters Office Building Amazon Spheres
Amazon Spheres is the core "tropical rainforest" part of the project. It consists of 3 large spheroids, the largest of which has a diameter of 39 meters and a height of 27 meters. It is said that 2,643 pieces of clear glass and 620 tons of steel were used throughout the building. And there is a layer of ETFE film under the glass, which can filter infrared rays and maintain the indoor temperature. And its biggest feature is that it has more than 40,000 kinds of plants planted therein, and they are all very cherished species. They were collected from more than 50 countries and walked like a walk in the forest.
Location: Seattle, USA
Area: 300,000 square meters
7. U.S. Embassy in London
This cube-shaped building is 65 meters high and has 12 floors. The surface is laminated glass. The facades on both sides are covered with transparent ETFE film. The special facade form of the building is to reduce direct sunlight while still being able Meet indoor lighting. The facade material of the building can reflect light, and its color changes according to the weather and the location of the sun. In addition to the use of oriented materials and the setting of unique façades, the architect also used a variety of sustainable strategies, including ground source heat pumps. The architect claimed that the building met the LEED platinum level standard and the BREEAM sustainability level , This is exactly their goal.
Location: London, United Kingdom
Design: Kieran Timberlake
Area: 48128 square meters
08. Schwabinger Tor Station
Schwabinger Tor is a newly built urban area in Munich. The tram stop with curved canopy designed by Felix Fischer Architekten has become a landmark in the area, giving the city's square space a unique landscape. The surface area of each canopy is a hyperbolic paraboloid, resulting in a low-cost, efficient static form. Both ceilings are made of welded steel beams and are covered with a single layer of smooth ETFE film. As a special function in the form of a hyperbola, the falling rainwater will naturally flow to the foundation, which plays a role in the safe collection and discharge.
Location: Munich, Germany
Design: Felix Fischer Architekten
Area: 2500 square meters
09. Kehl-Sundheim carport
Seele Architectural Studio achieved an extraordinary membrane roof construction in the water absorption area for the new car wash in Kehl-Sundheim. The geometry of the roof structure consists of a honeycomb steel structure, and the grid structure rests on the support. 710 square meters of double-layer ETFE film can provide weather protection. With integrated lighting, the roof provides a compelling effect. In summer, the anti-ultraviolet properties of the ETFE film can provide the necessary sun protection under maximum sunlight; in winter, due to the enclosed air volume, the film can balance wind and snow loads.
Area: 710 square meters
10. Serpentine Gallery Pavilion
The design consists of colored ETFE sheets and minimal steel frames, surrounding the "secret corridor", which is inspired by the multi-layered and sometimes chaotic network of lines underground in London. SelgasCano uses colored ETFE materials to make the structure "sporty and lightweight", and the plastic can be easily deformed in a rigid steel frame, showing a dynamic look and feel. SelgasCano collaborated with engineers Aecom & David Glover. The ETFE plastic material used was printed in 19 colors, achieving a kaleidoscope effect.
Location: London, United Kingdom